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Edwards, Keith E. Whitfi eld, Dwayne T.

Healthcare disparities amongst vulnerable populations of Arabs and Jews in Israel

Brandon, Reginald D. Jackson, Katherine M. Knight, Jane A. Kuzawa, Elizabeth Sweet. Iya Kahramanian, Leo S. Morales, David E. Hayes Bautista. Malpede, Lori F. Greene, Stephanie L. Fitzpatrick, Wendy K. Jefferson, Richard M. Shewchuk, Monica L. Baskin, Jamy D. Racial and Ethnic Groups Gopal K. Singh, Stella M. Williams, Chiquita Collins. Thorpe Jr. Chapter 18 U. Lovasi, Malo A. Hutson, Monica Guerra, Kathryn M. LaVeist, John M. Wallace Jr. Gee, Devon C. LaVeist, Kim J. Nickerson, Janice V. Brandon, Lydia A.

Community Health, Population Health and Public Health: Understanding the Differences

Isaac, Thomas A. Johnson, Debra Roter, Neil R. The ethnic demographic transition slated to occur during the next several decades in the United States will have numerous effects on the health-care sector, particularly as it pertains to the need for a more diverse and culturally aware workforce.

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We explore existing literature on this topic, propose a conceptual framework, and identify next steps in health-care policy for reducing and eliminating health disparities by addressing SDH and diversification of the health-care workforce. The profound effects social determinants have on health have received wide acceptance in recent years.

Those in minority groups are also more likely to be in lower SES groups, making them vulnerable to the effects of multiple social determinants of health SDH. At the midpoint of the 20th century, U. Census Bureau projects that, by the middle of the 21st century, ethnic groups now referred to as minority groups will be a numerical majority of the nation.

Other social and economic trends threaten the likelihood that the supply of minority health-care providers will meet the demand unless we successfully intervene. In addition to the small proportion of minority physicians and nurses, additional shortcomings in workforce diversity exist across the country. Faculty shortages have been reported at nursing schools during the past several years.

The U.

The research literature yields evidence of integration among the 3Ds—SDH, health disparities, and workforce diversity. By helping to establish a firm understanding of how and why culturally determined factors affect illness, medical adherence, and response to treatment, diversity can, in turn, translate to improved health for patients. This framework is based on the growing field of investigation that has unveiled the potential of a diverse workforce to improve access, increase patient satisfaction, and ensure culturally competent care by adequately addressing social determinants that impact health during medical interactions with patients.

By expanding the universe of health-care professionals from different parts of the country and world who speak varied languages and can relate to patients across cultural, economic, and political lines, we will better understand and address social issues related to access to care, including cultural practices, language barriers, and stigma.

Health-care providers will be able to provide more appropriate prevention and treatment recommendations, even if they are unable to directly address determinants such as environment, racism, and SES. These determinants are often dictated by the distribution of money, power, and resources across a multitude of levels, and directly impact health-care access and outcomes. WHO's Social Determinants of Health Conceptual Framework depicts the relationship among socioeconomic and political context, social position, conditions of daily life, the health-care system, and health and well-being.

By increasing the diversity of the health-care workforce, research supports our belief that barriers to access to care for many individuals can be eliminated, and, more appropriately, quality health care can be provided.

Race, ethnicity, and health : a public health reader / Thomas A. LaVeist, editor - Details - Trove

We depict this assertion in a new conceptual model presented in Figure 2. Conceptual framework integrating social determinants of health, health disparities, and workforce diversity. In recent years, a substantial body of literature has explored the extent to which diversity in the composition of the health-care workforce may be used as a tool to enhance interactions and, therefore, reduce disparities in health and health care in the United States. For example, in , the Sullivan Commission on Diversity in the Healthcare Workforce—composed of a highly diverse and experienced body of commissioners—issued 37 landmark recommendations, broadly supported by stakeholders to address the crisis of a lack of diversity in the health-care workforce in the U.

A study by Cooper and colleagues found that race-concordant visits were longer and had higher ratings of patient positive effect compared with race-discordant visits.

Enhancing the Measurement of Health Disparities for Vulnerable Populations

Patients were also more satisfied and rated physicians as more participatory in their encounters. Economically, this increasing diversity will be beneficial to communities not only in the form of new job opportunities, but also through improved health access and reduced morbidity and mortality.

By intervening in the SDH health pathway, diverse providers have the potential to reduce health-care disparities and decrease this economic burden. Considering other forms of diversity will help to address the needs of all populations whose health is impacted by social, environmental, and economic determinants. One of the most recent policy actions in addressing diversity in the health-care workforce comes from the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of hereafter, ACA.

Organizations should be sure to take advantage of these new opportunities in an effort to reduce health disparities through increased workforce diversity. These provisions include:. The ACA contains several additional workforce provisions for nurses, including the provision of loan forgiveness and grant opportunities for nursing students and faculty, as well as for practicing nurses. The law also provides support for nursing demonstration projects and increased funding for nurse-managed health clinics. In addition, a redesign of primary care delivery is underway to improve quality of care and reduce costs and waste through new models such as accountable care organizations and patient-centered medical homes, supported by the U.

These models have the potential to encourage care delivery through integrated and coordinated teams that emphasize patient-centeredness and cultural competency in the delivery of care. The Culture-Quality-Collaborative is a network of leading health-care organizations that have come together to share ideas, experiences, and solutions to problems that arise as a result of cross-cultural interactions within health-care settings.


Health-care researchers, professionals, and policy makers must work collaboratively in attempting to address social determinants in medical encounters in an effort to improve the health of individuals during the course of their lives. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. The snippet could not be located in the article text.

This book provides a historical and political perspective on the study of health, race and ethnicity, highlighting key issues on disparities in health care access. A Public Health Reader. LaVeist, Lydia A. However, studies have been mainly descriptive and. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games. Racial and ethnic disparities in U. Course Description: As members of the public health community we have a role to play in.

The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy.